Download e-book for iPad: A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and by Geoffrey H. Dutton
By Geoffrey H. Dutton
While spatial facts is digitized to be used in geographic info structures and different software program, information regarding its unique scale, answer and accuracy is often misplaced. for this reason, utilizing such info at diversified scales and mixing it with information from different resources can be tough. Mapping vector info at smaller than the unique scale calls for its generalization, that is often dealt with by way of post-processing in ways in which are just weakly supported by way of databases. The types and techniques defined during this booklet conquer many such difficulties through supplying a multi-resolution information illustration that permits retrieval of map information at a hierarchy of scales, in addition to documenting the accuracy of each spatial coordinate.
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Additional info for A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences)
Most nations have an official grid system (or several) for surveying and cadastral purposes. The grid may contain a set of zones, each a local coordinate origin. In principle, any grid location can be georeferenced back to the sphere, in order to relate it to geospatial data not encoded in official grid units. Georeferencing a planimetric location requires a number of pieces of information: (a) the zone in which the location falls; (b) the latitude and longitude of the origin of the zone; (c) the projection type; (d) the parameters used to create the projection; and (e) the datum (ellipsoid model) used.
Location identifiers would be built up using the numerals 1 through 9, rather than 0 through 3 as QTM employs. 3 Prior, Related and Derived Work 35 ery point on Earth was part of both hierarchies, either one or an interleaving of both could be used to generate location codes. ,oo /L Tv, / / \ o. o,,,,,t,oo,oo,,noo,... Fig. 10. Relations between GEM's dual triangular hierarchies Although GEM could accept elevation data for any or all points on a planet, it was realized that even a medium-dense elevation model for a whole one would consume huge amounts of storage, even at the rate of less than one bit per triangular facet theoretically possible, Some portions of a GEM pyramid would always be omitted, and some localities would have fewer levels of encoding (resulting in a smaller number of larger facets) than others.
Lastly, GEM is a complicated computational device, as its spatial indexing reflects two interlocking geometric figures, for which elevations can be described by interleaved digits in their geocodes; each region at a given level in one hierarchy named the nodes of the next level of the other, alternating as they plunge into detail. While each tessellation is space-exhausting, the two overlap, and need to be intersected at some level of detail in order to obtain a combined space partition. All this is possible to compute, but seems excessively complicated for purposes of location coding unless the benefits of dual tessellation clearly outweigh their costs.
A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) by Geoffrey H. Dutton