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By Zvengrowski P.

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The saturation current strongly depends on the choice of semiconductor. The upper limit of the open-circuit voltage can be approximately expressed as Voc Х E g ⎛ T0 ⎞ kT0 Ts kT0 ⍀inc 1Ϫ ⎟ ϩ ln ϩ ln q ⎜⎝ Ts ⎠ q T0 q 4p using the thermodynamic engine with Carnot efficiency, where T0 is the solar cell temperature, Ts the temperature of the sun, and ⍀inc the solid angle which the solar cell receive the incident irradiation from the sun [11]. The upper limit of the open-circuit voltage increases with the band gap energy as shown in Fig.

A Solar Cell with Periodic Boundary Conditions The morphology along the dashed line in Fig. 3 is further simplified in Fig. 4. Due to the periodicity of the structure, a unit cell can be defined between the dashed lines in Fig. 4. At these lines, Neumann-type boundary conditions apply for the electrostatic potential f, that is, Ѩf/Ѩx ϭ 0, and no current crosses these lines in the x-direction. The charge density r(x) and the electrostatic potential f(x) of such a periodic arrangement of a p-type material (here an inorganic absorber) and an n-type material (here TiO2) are also sketched in Fig.

In order to start the device modeling from a more clear arrangement, we simplify the geometric ordering of Fig. , [14, 15]). In a Grätzel type cell, a well-conducting electrolyte, almost perfectly, contacts all individual TiO2/dye grains. So, after idealizing the ordering of the TiO2 particulates, the structure of Fig. 3(a) is obtained. For solid-state TiO2based cells (eta-cells, 3-D cells), the arrangement of Fig. 3(b) is more appropriate, as there is no separate hole conductor penetrating into the structure.

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A 3-Fold Vector Product in R ^8 by Zvengrowski P.

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