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By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.
This publication introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing 3D seismic information. the subjects it covers contain simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written via expert geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the booklet should be crucial for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum
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Additional resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
Near where the stone was dropped in, the perimeter of the circular wavefront is quite small and its amplitude is large, but as the wavefront expands its amplitude decreases. In addition to a spherical divergence correction it is common to apply an additional exponential gain function with time to account for the transmission and attenuation losses. 2 Deconvolution Step 9, deconvolution, is a process that sharpens the wavelet and removes any short period reverberations. The theory is explained in a number of texts; see, for example, Robinson and Treitel (1980).
The ray-path that contains the P to S conversion through the high-velocity layer is much simpler and gives larger angular coverage at the target. In practice, it is very difficult to separate out such double conversions because of their low amplitudes and similarity in velocity to multiples. Fig. 14 Conventional marine shear wave geometry. Gas-saturated sediments are very disruptive to the passage of P-wave energy. The P-wave reflection will therefore be weak and highly scattered. On the other hand, the reflected S-waves are not affected by the presence of gas and travel through undisturbed.
In addition several other applications, although generally run on selected lines from the 3-D volume, may benefit from the prior application of one of the above. An example of such a process is velocity analysis, which is normally run on a regular grid of 2-D lines but will improve in quality after 3-D migration. An important aspect of 3-D data processing is to ensure spatial consistency of parameters such as the velocity field. 21 shows a typical processing sequence for 3-D data. We will briefly run through all the steps, but those that are significantly different from 2-D processing are highlighted in bold and will be discussed in more detail.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.